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city, east-central Kazakhstan. It lies on the Samarkand Reservoir of the Nura River. The settlement, a satellite city of Qaraghandy (Karaganda), came into being when the reservoir was built in 1934; until 1945 it was called Samarkandsky. Later, small industrial plants were built there. In World War II a steel mill using scrap metal was established, and by 1945 the city had more than 25,000 inhabitants.