a sudden, sharp pain: On damp days, he's often bothered by a twinge of rheumatism.
a mental or emotional pang: a twinge of guilt; twinges of sorrow.
verb (used with object), twinged, twinging.
to affect (the body or mind) with a sudden, sharp pain or pang.
to pinch; tweak; twitch.
verb (used without object), twinged, twinging.
to have or feel a sudden, sharp pain.

before 1000; Middle English twengen to pinch, Old English twengan

1. spasm, cramp, pang, stab. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
twinge (twɪndʒ)
1.  a sudden brief darting or stabbing pain
2.  a sharp emotional pang: a twinge of guilt
3.  to have or cause to have a twinge
4.  obsolete (tr) to pinch; tweak
[Old English twengan to pinch; related to Old High German zwengen]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1548, "a pinch," from obsolete verb twinge "to pinch, tweak," from O.E. twengan "to pinch," of uncertain origin. Meaning "sharp, sudden pain" is recorded from 1608. Fig. sense (with ref. to shame, remorse, etc.) is recorded from 1622.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

twinge (twĭnj)
A sharp, sudden physical pain. v. twinged, twing·ing, twing·es
To cause to feel a sharp pain.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
At this instant his left arm was laid hold of, and he felt a smart twinge of
  pain in it.
The use of the word trashy caused a sharp mental twinge.
He said that this could be only a twinge of pain or could last for a couple of
  hours, and occurred once or twice.
About three weeks after the work incident the claimant was bowling when he felt
  a sharp twinge beneath his right shoulder blade.
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