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city, Yamaguchi ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan, on the Inland Sea. Coal was mined in the area in the late 17th century, but Ube remained a small village until undersea mining operations began in the Meiji period (1868-1912). It then developed into a large mining and industrial city, manufacturing chemicals from coal. Because of the gradual decline of coal mining in Japan after World War II, many of the mines were closed. The city's products now include ammonium sulfate, cement, and soda. Ube also has a well-equipped harbour. Pop. (2005) 178,955.