ullage

[uhl-ij]
noun
1.
the amount by which the contents fall short of filling a container, as a cask or bottle.
2.
the quantity of wine, liquor, or the like, remaining in a container that has lost part of its contents by evaporation, leakage, or use.
3.
Rocketry. the volume of a loaded tank of liquid propellant in excess of the volume of the propellant; the space provided for thermal expansion of the propellant and the accumulation of gases evolved from it.

Origin:
1400–50; late Middle English < Anglo-French ulliage; Old French ouillage, (h)eullage wine needed to fill a cask, equivalent to (a)ouill(er) to fill (a cask) (derivative of ouil eye, hole < Latin oculus) + -age -age

ullaged, adjective
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World English Dictionary
ullage (ˈʌlɪdʒ)
 
n
1.  the volume by which a liquid container falls short of being full
2.  a.  the quantity of liquid lost from a container due to leakage or evaporation
 b.  (in customs terminology) the amount of liquid remaining in a container after such loss
 
vb
3.  to create ullage in
4.  to determine the amount of ullage in
5.  to fill up ullage in
 
[C15: from Old French ouillage filling of a cask, from ouiller to fill a cask, from ouil eye, from Latin oculus eye]
 
'ullaged
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

ullage
"amount by which a cask or bottle falls short of being full," late 15c., from Anglo-Fr. ulliage (early 14c.), Anglo-L. oliagium (late 13c.), O.Fr. ouillage, from ouiller "to fill up (a barrel) to the bung," lit. "to fill to the eye," from ueil "eye," from L. ochulus.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
The model accounts for the change in the ullage volume due to expulsion of the
  propellant.
The minimum allowable five-minute final pressure is based on the system ullage
  and pressure decay equations.
It must understand ullage space needed to accommodate expansion during
  temperature cycling.
Calculate the ullage space for each tank by subtracting the gasoline gallonage
  present from the actual tank capacity.
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