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city, Baden-Wurttemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies on the left bank of the Danube River at its junction with the Iller and the Blau, opposite the Bavarian town of Neu Ulm. It was first mentioned as a royal domain in 854 and was chartered in the 12th century by the Hohenstaufen emperors. It played a leading part in the town leagues and wars of the 14th and 15th centuries, becoming a free imperial city with extensive territorial authority. Ulm's location at the hub of important trade routes and its prominence in the manufacture of linen and fustian brought it great prosperity in the Middle Ages. It became Protestant in 1530 and declined after the religious French wars of the 16th and 17th centuries. It passed to Bavaria in 1802, losing its territories and immunities, and in 1810 it was ceded to Wurttemberg. In 1869 the former suburb of Neu Ulm on the Danube's right bank was chartered as a Bavarian town. By the mid-20th century Ulm had expanded industrially and commercially to become the economic hub of the area.