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Roman jurist and imperial official whose writings supplied one-third of the total content of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I's monumental Digest, or Pandects (completed 533). He was a subordinate to Papinian when that older jurist was praetorian prefect (chief adviser to the emperor and commander of his bodyguard) under Lucius Septimius Severus (reigned 193-211), and he annotated Papinian's works. Afterward Ulpian was master of petitions to the emperor Caracalla, and under Severus Alexander he served as praetorian prefect from 222 until 228, when he was murdered by officers in his command