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city, western Kazakhstan, along the Ural (Zhayyq) River. Founded in 1613 or 1622 by Cossacks fleeing a tsarist punitive campaign, it was known as Yaitsky Gorodok until 1775, when its name was changed following the Pugachov Rebellion. The town was a centre of both the Stenka Razin (1667) and Yemelyan Pugachov (1773) uprisings and was the headquarters of the Ural Cossacks. It had a lively trade with European Russia in fish from the Ural River and livestock products from the Kazakh steppes. Its commercial importance began to decline in the early 20th century when the new railway to Turkistan bypassed it. Oral's industries today include leather and footwear, meatpacking, flour milling, some engineering, and a licorice works. The city has teacher-training and agricultural institutes, the oldest theatre in Kazakhstan, and a museum with historic Cossack mementos