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town, Gauteng province, South Africa. It lies along the Vaal River, south of Johannesburg, at the Free State border. Its name, which is an Afrikaans word meaning "association," refers to the coal-mining association that owned the town when it was founded in 1892. Peace negotiations to end the South African War took place there in 1902, and the resulting treaty was named after the town. The community was incorporated as a town in 1912. Vereeniging's access to abundant coal and water from the Vaal River has enabled it to become one of South Africa's main heavy industrial centres, with plants manufacturing assorted iron and steel products, glass, and bricks and tiles. Large local thermal power stations transmit electricity through the national grid. Demonstrations in 1960 denouncing pass laws at the nearby township of Sharpeville led to the shooting deaths of at least 67 blacks. Pop. (2001) 79,630.