the objective case of who: Whom did you call? Of whom are you speaking? With whom did you stay?
the dative case of who: You gave whom the book?

before 900; Middle English; Old English hwām, dative of hwā who

who, whom (see usage note at who).

See who.
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pronoun, possessive whose; objective whom.
what person or persons?: Who did it?
(of a person) of what character, origin, position, importance, etc.: Who does she think she is?
the person that or any person that (used relatively to represent a specified or implied antecedent): It was who you thought.
(used relatively in restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses to represent a specified antecedent, the antecedent being a person or sometimes an animal or personified thing): Any kid who wants to can learn to swim.
Archaic. the person or persons who.
as who should say, Archaic. in a manner of speaking; so to say.

before 900; Middle English; Old English hwā; cognate with Old High German hwer, Gothic hwas, Latin quis

who, whom (see usage note at the current entry).

The typical usage guide statement about the choice between who and whom says that the choice must be determined by the grammar of the clause within which this pronoun occurs. Who is the appropriate form for the subject of a sentence or clause: Who are you? The voters who elected him have not been disappointed. Whom is the objective form: Whom did you ask? To whom are we obliged for this assistance? This method of selecting the appropriate form is generally characteristic of formal writing and is usually followed in edited prose.
In most speech and writing, however, since who or whom often occurs at the beginning of the sentence or clause, there is a strong tendency to choose who no matter what its function. Even in edited prose, who occurs at least ten times as often as whom, regardless of grammatical function. Only when it directly follows a preposition is whom more likely to occur than who: Mr. Erickson is the man to whom you should address your request.
In natural informal speech, whom is quite rare. Who were you speaking to? is far more likely to occur than the “correct” To whom were you speaking? or Whom were you speaking to? However, the notion that whom is somehow more “correct” or elegant than who leads some speakers to hypercorrect uses of whom: Whom are you? The person whom is in charge has left the office. See also than.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
who (huː)
1.  which person? what person? used in direct and indirect questions: he can't remember who did it; who met you?
2.  used to introduce relative clauses with antecedents referring to human beings: the people who lived here have left
3.  the one or ones who; whoever: bring who you want

abbreviation for
World Health Organization

whom (huːm)
the objective form of who, used when who is not the subject of its own clause: whom did you say you had seen?; he can't remember whom he saw
usage  It was formerly considered correct to use whom whenever the objective form of who was required. This is no longer thought to be necessary and the objective form who is now commonly used, even in formal writing: there were several people there who he had met before. Who cannot be used directly after a preposition -- the preposition is usually displaced, as in the man (who) he sold his car to. In formal writing whom is preferred in sentences like these: the man to whom he sold his car. There are some types of sentence in which who cannot be used: the refugees, many of whom were old and ill, were allowed across the border

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

O.E. hwa, from P.Gmc. *khwas, *khwes, *khwo (cf. O.S. hwe, Dan. hvo, Swed. vem, O.Fris. hwa, Du. wie, O.H.G. hwer, Ger. wer, Goth. hvo (fem.) "who"), from PIE *qwos/*qwes (cf. Skt. kah "who, which," Avestan ko, Hittite kuish "who," L. qui, quae, quod "who, which, what," Lith. kas "who," O.C.S. kuto,
Rus. kto "who," O.Ir. ce, Welsh pwy "who").

O.E. hwam, the dative form of hwa (see who).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Abbreviations & Acronyms
World Health Organization
The American Heritage® Abbreviations Dictionary, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences for whom
Tom and partridge come across a lame fellow in rags to whom tom gives a
On his death bed, his marshals asked him to whom he bequeathed his kingdom.
He befriends the priest, whom he meets at the quayside, and later witnesses his
There are seventeen countries with whom the holy see still does not have
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