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a carbonate mineral, barium carbonate (BaCO3), that is, with the exception of barite, the most common barium mineral, despite its rarity. It is ordinarily found in fairly pure form in association with barite and galena in low-temperature hydrothermal veins, as in the north of England and in Scotland. Because of its solubility in common acids, witherite is preferred to barite in the preparation of other barium compounds. It is also used in case-hardening steel and in refining sugar. For detailed physical properties, see carbonate mineral (table)