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wrought

[rawt] /rɔt/
verb
1.
Archaic except in some senses. a simple past tense and past participle of work.
adjective
2.
3.
elaborated; embellished.
4.
not rough or crude.
5.
produced or shaped by beating with a hammer, as iron or silver articles.
Origin
1200-1250
1200-50; Middle English wroght, metathetic variant of worht, past participle of worchen to work
Related forms
interwrought, adjective
self-wrought, adjective
superwrought, adjective
underwrought, adjective
unwrought, adjective
well-wrought, adjective
Synonyms
2. See worked.

work

[wurk] /wɜrk/
noun
1.
exertion or effort directed to produce or accomplish something; labor; toil.
2.
something on which exertion or labor is expended; a task or undertaking:
The students finished their work in class.
3.
productive or operative activity.
4.
employment, as in some form of industry, especially as a means of earning one's livelihood:
to look for work.
5.
one's place of employment:
Don't phone him at work.
6.
materials, things, etc., on which one is working or is to work.
7.
the result of exertion, labor, or activity; a deed or performance.
8.
a product of exertion, labor, or activity:
musical works.
9.
an engineering structure, as a building or bridge.
10.
a building, wall, trench, or the like, constructed or made as a means of fortification.
11.
works.
  1. (used with a singular or plural verb) a place or establishment for manufacturing (often used in combination):
    ironworks.
  2. the working parts of a machine:
    the works of a watch.
  3. Theology. righteous deeds.
12.
Physics. force times the distance through which it acts; specifically, the transference of energy equal to the product of the component of a force that acts in the direction of the motion of the point of application of the force and the distance through which the point of application moves.
13.
the works, Informal.
  1. everything; all related items or matters:
    a hamburger with the works.
  2. harsh or cruel treatment:
    to give someone the works.
adjective
14.
of, for, or concerning work:
work clothes.
15.
working (def 18).
verb (used without object), worked or (Archaic) wrought; working.
16.
to do work; labor.
17.
to be employed, especially as a means of earning one's livelihood:
He hasn't worked for six weeks.
18.
to be in operation, as a machine.
19.
to act or operate effectively:
The pump will not work. The plan works.
20.
to attain a specified condition, as by repeated movement:
The nails worked loose.
21.
to have an effect or influence, as on a person or on the mind or feelings of a person.
22.
to move in agitation, as the features under strong emotion.
23.
to make way with effort or under stress:
The ship works to windward.
24.
Nautical. to give slightly at the joints, as a vessel under strain at sea.
25.
Machinery. to move improperly, as from defective fitting of parts or from wear.
26.
to undergo treatment by labor in a given way:
This dough works slowly.
27.
to ferment, as a liquid.
verb (used with object), worked or ( Archaic, except for 29, 31, 34 ) wrought; working.
28.
to use or manage (an apparatus, contrivance, etc.):
She can work many business machines.
29.
to bring about (any result) by or as by work or effort:
to work a change.
30.
to manipulate or treat by labor:
to work butter.
31.
to put into effective operation.
32.
to operate (a mine, farm, etc.) for productive purposes:
to work a coal mine.
33.
to carry on operations in (a district or region).
34.
to make, fashion, or execute by work.
35.
to achieve or win by work or effort:
to work one's passage.
36.
to keep (a person, a horse, etc.) at work:
She works her employees hard.
37.
to influence or persuade, especially insidiously:
to work other people to one's will.
38.
Informal. to exploit (someone or something) to one's advantage:
See if you can work your uncle for a new car. He worked his charm in landing a new job.
39.
to make or decorate by needlework or embroidery:
She worked a needlepoint cushion.
40.
to cause fermentation in.
Verb phrases
41.
work in/into,
  1. to bring or put in; add, merge, or blend:
    The tailor worked in the patch skillfully. Work the cream into the hands until it is completely absorbed.
  2. to arrange a time or employment for:
    The dentist was very busy, but said she would be able to work me in late in the afternoon. They worked him into the new operation.
42.
work off,
  1. to lose or dispose of, as by exercise or labor:
    We decided to work off the effects of a heavy supper by walking for an hour.
  2. to pay or fulfill by working:
    He worked off his debt by doing odd jobs.
43.
work on/upon, to exercise influence on; persuade; affect:
I'll work on her, and maybe she'll change her mind.
44.
work out,
  1. to bring about by work, effort, or action.
  2. to solve, as a problem.
  3. to arrive at by or as by calculation.
  4. to pay (a debt) by working instead of paying money.
  5. to exhaust, as a mine.
  6. to issue in a result.
  7. to evolve; elaborate.
  8. to amount to (a total or specified figure); add up (to):
    The total works out to 176.
  9. to prove effective or successful:
    Their marriage just didn't work out.
  10. to practice, exercise, or train, especially in order to become proficient in an athletic sport:
    The boxers are working out at the gym tonight.
45.
work over,
  1. to study or examine thoroughly:
    For my term paper I worked over 30 volumes of Roman history.
  2. Informal. to beat unsparingly, especially in order to obtain something or out of revenge:
    They threatened to work him over until he talked.
46.
work through, to deal with successfully; come to terms with:
to work through one's feelings of guilt.
47.
work up,
  1. to move or stir the feelings; excite.
  2. to prepare; elaborate:
    Work up some plans.
  3. to increase in efficiency or skill:
    He worked up his typing speed to 70 words a minute.
48.
work up to, rise to a higher position; advance:
He worked up to the presidency.
Idioms
49.
at work,
  1. working, as at one's job:
    He's at work on a new novel.
  2. in action or operation:
    to see the machines at work.
50.
gum up the works, Slang. to spoil something, as through blundering or stupidity:
The surprise party was all arranged, but her little brother gummed up the works and told her.
51.
in the works, in preparation or being planned:
A musical version of the book is in the works.
52.
make short work of, to finish or dispose of quickly:
We made short work of the chocolate layer cake.
53.
out of work, unemployed; jobless:
Many people in the area were out of work.
54.
shoot the works, Slang. to spend all one's resources:
Let's shoot the works and order the crêpes suzette.
Origin
before 900; (noun) Middle English worke, Old English worc, replacing Middle English werk(e), Old English weorc, cognate with Old Frisian, Old Saxon werk, Old High German werah, werc (German Werk), Old Norse verk, Greek érgon; (v.) Middle English worken, derivative of the noun, replacing Middle English wyrchen, Old English wyrcean; cognate with German wirken, Old Norse verkja, Gothic waurkjan
Related forms
nonwork, noun
prework, verb, preworked or prewrought, preworking.
prework, noun, adjective
Synonyms
1. Work, drudgery, labor, toil refer to exertion of body or mind in performing or accomplishing something. Work is the general word and may apply to exertion that is either easy or hard: fun work; heavy work. Drudgery suggests continuous, dreary, and dispiriting work, especially of a menial or servile kind: the drudgery of household tasks. Labor particularly denotes hard manual work: labor on a farm, in a steel mill. Toil suggests wearying or exhausting labor: toil that breaks down the worker's health. 2. enterprise, project, job, responsibility. 3. industry, occupation, business. 4. job, trade, calling, vocation, profession. 7. product, achievement, feat. 16. toil, drudge. 28. operate, manipulate, handle. 29. accomplish, effect, produce, achieve. 34. finish, form, shape. 37. move.
Antonyms
1. play, rest.

wreak

[reek] /rik/
verb (used with object)
1.
to inflict or execute (punishment, vengeance, etc.):
They wreaked havoc on the enemy.
2.
to carry out the promptings of (one's rage, ill humor, will, desire, etc.), as on a victim or object:
He wreaked his anger on the office staff.
Origin
before 900; Middle English wreken, Old English wrecan; cognate with German rächen to avenge, Old Norse reka to drive, avenge, Gothic wrikan to persecute; akin to Latin urgēre to drive, push
Related forms
wreaker, noun
Can be confused
rack, wrack, wreak, wreck.
racked, wracked, wreaked, wrecked.
Synonyms
1. visit, vent, unleash.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples for wrought
  • Pause for a few moments on one of its wrought-iron benches, and you think you could stay there forever.
  • Due to heavy rains and strong winds, serious damage has been wrought on the historic structures.
  • Lest you think my rhetoric too strong, look at what the great recession has wrought.
  • They placed them in a corner of the lounge, along with a few chairs and wrought-iron lamps.
  • In twelve months a vast change has been wrought in the nation's life and mood.
  • Stretches of the wrought iron fence are broken and twisted.
  • The genius of the inventor was required to reduce wrought iron to practical purposes.
  • People migrating from the countryside face untold challenges wrought by density.
  • Those changes were wrought in a scant ten thousand years.
  • Maybe next you'll want to explore if evolution is a conspiracy wrought by the devil.
British Dictionary definitions for wrought

wrought

/rɔːt/
verb
1.
(archaic) a past tense and past participle of work
adjective
2.
(metallurgy) shaped by hammering or beating
3.
(often in combination) formed, fashioned, or worked as specified well-wrought
4.
decorated or made with delicate care
Usage note
Wrought is sometimes used as if it were the past tense and past participle of wreak as in the hurricane wrought havoc in coastal areas. Many people think this use is incorrect
Word Origin
C16: variant of worht, from Old English geworht, past participle of (ge)wyrcan to work

work

/wɜːk/
noun
1.
physical or mental effort directed towards doing or making something
2.
paid employment at a job or a trade, occupation, or profession
3.
a duty, task, or undertaking
4.
something done, made, etc, as a result of effort or exertion a work of art
5.
materials or tasks on which to expend effort or exertion
6.
another word for workmanship (sense 3)
7.
the place, office, etc, where a person is employed
8.
any piece of material that is undergoing a manufacturing operation or process; workpiece
9.
  1. decoration or ornamentation, esp of a specified kind
  2. (in combination) wirework, woolwork
10.
an engineering structure such as a bridge, building, etc
11.
(physics) the transfer of energy expressed as the product of a force and the distance through which its point of application moves in the direction of the force Abbreviation W, w
12.
a structure, wall, etc, built or used as part of a fortification system
13.
at work
  1. at one's job or place of employment
  2. in action; operating
14.
(informal) make short work of, to handle or dispose of very quickly
15.
(modifier) of, relating to, or used for work work clothes, a work permit
verb
16.
(intransitive) to exert effort in order to do, make, or perform something
17.
(intransitive) to be employed
18.
(transitive) to carry on operations, activity, etc, in (a place or area) that salesman works the southern region
19.
(transitive) to cause to labour or toil he works his men hard
20.
to operate or cause to operate, esp properly or effectively to work a lathe, that clock doesn't work
21.
(transitive) to till or cultivate (land)
22.
to handle or manipulate or be handled or manipulated to work dough
23.
to shape, form, or process or be shaped, formed, or processed to work copper
24.
to reach or cause to reach a specific condition, esp gradually the rope worked loose
25.
(transitive) (mainly US & Canadian) to solve (a mathematical problem)
26.
(intransitive) to move in agitation his face worked with anger
27.
(transitive) often foll by up. to provoke or arouse to work someone into a frenzy
28.
(transitive) to effect or accomplish to work one's revenge
29.
to make (one's way) with effort he worked his way through the crowd
30.
(transitive) to make or decorate by hand in embroidery, tapestry, etc she was working a sampler
31.
(intransitive) (of a mechanism) to move in a loose or otherwise imperfect fashion
32.
(intransitive) (of liquids) to ferment, as in brewing
33.
(transitive) (informal) to manipulate or exploit to one's own advantage
34.
(transitive) (slang) to cheat or swindle
Derived Forms
workless, adjective
worklessness, noun
Word Origin
Old English weorc (n), wircan, wyrcan (vb); related to Old High German wurchen, German wirken, Old Norse yrkja, Gothic waurkjan

wreak

/riːk/
verb (transitive)
1.
to inflict (vengeance, etc) or to cause (chaos, etc) to wreak havoc on the enemy
2.
to express, or gratify (anger, hatred, etc)
3.
(archaic) to take vengeance for
Derived Forms
wreaker, noun
Word Origin
Old English wrecan; related to Old Frisian wreka, Old High German rehhan (German rächen), Old Norse reka, Latin urgēre to push
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for wrought

mid-13c., from past participle of Middle English werken (see work).

work

n.

Old English weorc, worc "something done, deed, action, proceeding, business, military fortification," from Proto-Germanic *werkan (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Dutch werk, Old Norse verk, Middle Dutch warc, Old High German werah, German Werk, Gothic gawaurki), from PIE root *werg- "to work" (see urge (v.)).

Work is less boring than amusing oneself. [Baudelaire, "Mon Coeur mis a nu," 1862]
In Old English, the noun also had the sense of "fornication." Workhouse in the sense of "place where the poor or petty criminals are lodged" first appeared 1650s. Works "industrial place" (usually with qualifying adj.) is attested from 1580s. Work ethic recorded from 1959.

v.

a fusion of Old English wyrcan (past tense worhte, past participle geworht), from Proto-Germanic *wurkijanan; and Old English wircan (Mercian) "to work, operate, function," formed relatively late from Proto-Germanic noun *werkan (see work (n.)). Related: Worked; working. Working class is from 1789 as a noun, 1839 as an adjective.

wreak

v.

Old English wrecan "avenge," originally "to drive, drive out, punish" (class V strong verb; past tense wræc, past participle wrecen), from Proto-Germanic *wrekanan (cf. Old Saxon wrekan, Old Norse reka, Old Frisian wreka, Middle Dutch wreken "to drive, push, compel, pursue, throw," Old High German rehhan, German rächen "to avenge," Gothic wrikan "to persecute"), from PIE root *werg- "to work, to do" (cf. Lithuanian vergas "distress," vergas "slave;" Old Church Slavonic vragu "enemy;" Latin urgere; see urge (v.)). Meaning "inflict or take vengeance," with on, is recorded from late 15c.; that of "inflict or cause (damage or destruction)" is attested from 1817.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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wrought in Science
work
  (wûrk)   
The transfer of energy from one object to another, especially in order to make the second object move in a certain direction. Work is equal to the amount of force multiplied by the distance over which it is applied. If a force of 10 newtons, for example, is applied over a distance of 3 meters, the work is equal to 30 newtons per meter, or 30 joules. The unit for measuring work is the same as that for energy in any system of units, since work is simply a transfer of energy. Compare energy, power.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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wrought in Culture

work definition


In physics, the product of a force applied, and the distance through which that force acts.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Slang definitions & phrases for wrought

work

verb
  1. To go about a place begging, selling, stealing, etc; ply one's often-dishonest trade: She did not deserve charity. She worked the town (1851+)
  2. To exert one's charm, power, persuasiveness, etc, esp on an audience; manipulate: To watch Dick Engberg work the crowd and Al McGuire tossing peanuts to the spectators/ We watched him work the room a bit (1851+)
Related Terms

bullwork, dirty work, donkeywork, grunt work, nice work if you can get it, noodlework, scut


The Dictionary of American Slang, Fourth Edition by Barbara Ann Kipfer, PhD. and Robert L. Chapman, Ph.D.
Copyright (C) 2007 by HarperCollins Publishers.
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Idioms and Phrases with wrought
The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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