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city, Chelyabinsk oblast (province), western Russia. It lies on both banks of the Ay River and on the Ufa-Chelyabinsk trunk railway, where river and rail cut through the Urenga Range of the Ural Mountains. In 1754 the Kosotur Iron and Copper Works were established there, and city status was granted in 1865. A major pre-revolutionary steel city noted for its engraved steel and swords, Zlatoust remains one of the most important metallurgical centres of the Urals, specializing in high-grade and stainless steels. Clocks and instruments are also made. Constricted by the narrow Ay River valley, Zlatoust developed a new centre during World War II, some 7 miles (11 km) from the old city. Pop. (1991 est.) 210,700.