Medicine/Medical. the inability of a diseased heart to compensate for its defect.
Psychology. a loss of ability to maintain normal or appropriate psychological defenses, sometimes resulting in depression, anxiety, or delusions.

1900–05; de- + compensation Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
decompensation (diːˌkɒmpɛnˈseɪʃən)
pathol inability of an organ, esp the heart, to maintain its function due to overload caused by a disease

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1905, from de- + compensation. Related: Decompensate.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

decompensation de·com·pen·sa·tion (dē'kŏm-pən-sā'shən)

  1. Failure of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, marked by labored breathing, engorged blood vessels, and edema.

  2. The appearance or exacerbation of a mental disorder due to failure of defense mechanisms.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
But that only happens if the decompensation was a result of drinking.
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