"You canker blossom!" 3 Shakespearean Insults
pet form of masc. proper name John (see -y (3)). Used as a contemptuous or humorous designation for some class or group of men from 1670s (e.g. the typical name in the North and the Northern armies for a Confederate soldier during the American Civil War). In the Mediterranean, it was a typical name for an Englishman by c.1800; in the Crimean War, it became the typical name among the English for "a Turk," later extended to "an Arab" (who by World War II were using it in turn as the typical name for "a British man"). Johnny-come-lately first attested 1839.
1590s, "money box;" also "money in hand, coin," from Middle French caisse "money box" (16c.), from Provençal caissa or Italian cassa, from Latin capsa "box" (see case (n.2)); originally the money box, but the secondary sense of the money in it became sole meaning 18c. Cash crop is attested from 1831; cash flow from 1954; the mechanical cash register from 1878.
Like many financial terms in English (bankrupt, etc.), ultimately from Italian. Not related to (but influencing the form of) the colonial British cash "Indian monetary system, Chinese coin, etc.," which is from Tamil kasu, Sanskrit karsha, Sinhalese kasi.
"to convert to cash" (as a check, etc.), 1811, from cash (n.). Related: Cashed; cashing.
johnny john·ny (jŏn'ē)
A loose short-sleeved gown opening in the back, worn by patients undergoing medical treatment or examination.
rutherford ruth·er·ford (rŭð'ər-fərd)
A unit expressing the rate of decay of radioactive material, equal to one million disintegrations per second.
Rutherford Ruth·er·ford (rŭð'ər-fərd, rŭth'-), Ernest. First Baron Rutherford of Nelson. 1871-1937.
New Zealand-born British physicist who classified radiation into alpha, beta, and gamma types and discovered the atomic nucleus. He won the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry.
New Zealand-born British physicist who was a pioneer of subatomic physics. He discovered the atomic nucleus and named the proton. Rutherford demonstrated that radioactive elements give off three types of rays, which he named alpha, beta, and gamma, and invented the term half-life to measure the rate of radioactive decay. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1908.
Our Living Language : Current theories of nuclear fission and fusion reactions are well accepted; these reactions now drive nuclear power plants and atomic bombs. But when the notion that some atoms could spontaneously disintegrate into other atoms was first advanced in 1902 by Ernest Rutherford, it found resistance among his colleagues, who believed that the chemical elements of which known matter was composed were indestructible and immutable. Undaunted, this New Zealand-born physicist then made a large number of discoveries in rapid succession, including the discovery of three kinds of radioactivity (alpha, beta, and gamma rays), and his brilliance and prodigious output soon won over his critics. By the time he garnered the Nobel Prize for chemistry six years later, he had written 80 more scientific papers. His explanation in 1903 of the radioactive decay of uranium—that pieces of uranium atoms were literally breaking off and being emitted, thereby transforming the uranium into a new element—was compelling and soon well accepted. Astonishingly, what are arguably his greatest discoveries came three years after he won the Prize. In 1911, he showed that atoms were composed of smaller constituents: electrons orbiting around a positively charged nucleus. While the rudiments of this idea had already been proposed by others, Rutherford's experimental research conclusively demonstrated its correctness. Rutherford later identified the proton, one of the particles found in the nucleus. The Rutherford atom, as it came to be known, is the model of atomic structure from which today's well-established quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure derive. Rutherford also succeeded in inducing the first artificial fusion, fusing deuterium atoms together into radioactive tritium and a light isotope of helium.