another

[uh-nuhth-er]
adjective
1.
being one more or more of the same; further; additional: another piece of cake.
2.
different; distinct; of a different period, place, or kind: at another time; another man.
3.
very similar to; of the same kind or category as: What we need today is another Thomas Jefferson.
pronoun
4.
one more; an additional one: That first hot dog tasted so good I'd like another.
5.
a different one; something different: going from one house to another.
6.
one like the first: one copy for her and another for him.
7.
a person other than oneself or the one specified: He told her he loved another.

Origin:
1175–1225; Middle English; see an1, other

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
another (əˈnʌðə)
 
determiner
1.  a.  one more; an added: another chance
 b.  (as pronoun): help yourself to another
2.  a.  a different; alternative: another era from ours
 b.  (as pronoun): to try one path, then another
3.  a.  a different example of the same sort: another Beethoven
 b.  (as pronoun): we got rid of one loafer, but I think this new man's another
4.  another place the other House of Parliament (used in the House of Commons to refer to the House of Lords and vice versa)
 
[C14: originally an other]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

another
early 13c., merger of an other. O.E. simply had oþer. Originally "a second of two."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Idioms & Phrases

another

In addition to the idiom beginning with another, also see dance to another tune; have another guess coming; horse of a different (another) color; one good turn deserves another; one man's meat is another man's poison; one way or another; sing a different (another) tune; tomorrow is another day; wear another hat.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms by Christine Ammer.
Copyright © 1997. Published by Houghton Mifflin.
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Example sentences
Then you'd have to decide whether you need additional equipment or
  personnel-maybe it's time to enlist another surgeon.
Earlier this week two economists debated the merits of another round of fiscal
  stimulus.
We've had a large earthquake, but the chances of having another one are pretty
  small.
They compete with one another for limited resources: brain time or bandwidth.
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