Physiology. pertaining to the blood in the pulmonary vein, in the left side of the heart, and in most arteries, having been oxygenated during its passage through the lungs and being normally bright red.
Anatomy. of, pertaining to, or resembling the arteries.
being or constituting a main route, channel, or other course of flow or access, often with many branches: an arterial highway; an arterial drainage system.
a main route, channel, or other course of flow or access: funds to resurface the main arterials of the city.

1375–1425; late Middle English (< Middle French) < Medieval Latin artēriālis. See artery, -al1

arterially, adverb
nonarterial, adjective
postarterial, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
arterial (ɑːˈtɪərɪəl)
1.  of, relating to, or affecting an artery or arteries: arterial disease
2.  denoting or relating to the usually bright red reoxygenated blood returning from the lungs or gills that circulates in the arteries
3.  being a major route, esp one with many minor branches: an arterial road

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1540s, from Fr. artérial (Mod.Fr. artériel), from L. arteria; see artery.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

arterial ar·te·ri·al (är-tēr'ē-əl)

  1. Of or relating to one or more arteries or to the entire system of arteries.

  2. Of, relating to, or being the bright red oxygenated blood in the arteries.

ar·te'ri·al·ly adv.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
artery   (är'tə-rē)  Pronunciation Key 
Any of the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body's cells, tissues, and organs. Arteries are flexible, elastic tubes with muscular walls that expand and contract to pump blood through the body.

arterial adjective (är-tîr'ē-əl)
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Yet after treatment with sulindac, their arterial walls were the same size as
  those of normal mice receiving the drug.
Arterial and venous duplex ultrasound of the abdomen examines blood vessels and
  blood flow in the abdominal area.
Fleets of new buses zip along exclusive lanes carved out of arterial roads.
Much of it has gone on improvements to the state capital's metro and its main
  arterial roads.
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