Denotation vs. Connotation


[air-ee-uh n, air-yuh n, ar-] /ˈɛər i ən, ˈɛər yən, ˈær-/
Ethnology. a member or descendant of the prehistoric people who spoke Indo-European.
(in Nazi doctrine) a non-Jewish Caucasian, especially of Nordic stock.
(formerly) Indo-European.
(formerly) Indo-Iranian.
of or relating to an Aryan or the Aryans.
(formerly) Indo-European.
(formerly) Indo-Iranian.
Also, Arian.
Origin of Aryan
1785-95; < Sanskrit ārya of high rank (adj.), aristocrat (noun) + -an
Related forms
non-Aryan, noun, adjective
pre-Aryan, adjective
pseudo-Aryan, adjective, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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Examples from the Web for Aryan
Contemporary Examples
Historical Examples
  • What, then, is the difference between the Aryan and Semitic nomenclature for the Deity?

  • Those of Yezd have, according to Khanikoff, Aryan characteristics.

    Les Parsis D. Menant
  • Among the most sacred animals of the Aryan race was the horse.

    Early Britain Grant Allen
  • But the worship of which blood is the tie is not to the Aryan, as to the Semite, the whole of religion.

    History of Religion Allan Menzies
  • Driven, lured, coerced, these Aryan tribes have inundated the earth.

    The American Empire Scott Nearing
British Dictionary definitions for Aryan


(in Nazi ideology) a Caucasian of non-Jewish descent, esp of the Nordic type
a member of any of the peoples supposedly descended from the Indo-Europeans, esp a speaker of an Iranian or Indic language in ancient times
of, relating to, or characteristic of an Aryan or Aryans
adjective, noun
(archaic) Indo-European
Word Origin
C19: from Sanskrit ārya of noble birth
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for Aryan

c.1600, as a term in classical history, from Latin Arianus, Ariana, from Greek Aria, Areia, names applied in classical times to the eastern part of ancient Persia and to its inhabitants. Ancient Persians used the name in reference to themselves (Old Persian ariya-), hence Iran. Ultimately from Sanskrit arya- "compatriot;" in later language "noble, of good family."

Also the name Sanskrit-speaking invaders of India gave themselves in the ancient texts, from which early 19c. European philologists (Friedrich Schlegel, 1819, who linked the word with German Ehre "honor") applied it to the ancient people we now call Indo-Europeans (suspecting that this is what they called themselves); this use is attested in English from 1851. The term fell into the hands of racists, and in German from 1845 it was specifically contrasted to Semitic (Lassen).

German philologist Max Müller (1823-1900) popularized the term in his writings on comparative linguistics, recommending it as the name (replacing Indo-European, Indo-Germanic, Caucasian, Jshortened) for the group of related, inflected languages connected with these peoples, mostly found in Europe but also including Sanskrit and Persian. Arian was used in this sense from 1839 (and is more philologically correct), but this spelling caused confusion with Arian, the term in ecclesiastical history.

Gradually replaced in comparative linguistics c.1900 by Indo-European, except when used to distinguish Indo-European languages of India from non-Indo-European ones. Used in Nazi ideology to mean "member of a Caucasian Gentile race of Nordic type." As an ethnic designation, however, it is properly limited to Indo-Iranians (most justly to the latter) and has fallen from general academic use since the Nazi era.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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