in or toward a lower place: Look out below!
on, in, or toward a lower level, as a lower deck of a ship: The captain of the ship went below.
beneath the surface of the water: Divers were sent below to view the wreck.
on earth: the fate of creatures here below.
in hell or the infernal regions.
at a later point on a page or in a text: See the illustration below. Compare above ( def 5 ).
in a lower rank or grade: He was demoted to the class below.
under zero on the temperature scale: The temperature in Buffalo was ten below this morning.
Theater. downstage. Compare above ( def 8 ).
Zoology. on the lower or ventral side.
lower down than: below the knee.
lower in rank, degree, amount, rate, etc., than: below cost; below freezing.
too low or undignified to be worthy of; beneath: He considered such an action below his notice.
Theater. downstage of: There are two chairs below the table.

1275–1325; Middle English bilooghe, equivalent to bi- by (see be-) + looghe low1

11. Below, under, beneath indicate position in some way lower than something else. Below implies being in a lower plane: below the horizon, the water line. Under implies being lower in a perpendicular line: The book is under the chair. Beneath may have a meaning similar to below but more usually denotes being under so as to be covered, overhung, or overtopped: the pool beneath the falls. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
below (bɪˈləʊ)
1.  at or to a position lower than; under
2.  less than in quantity or degree
3.  south of
4.  downstream of
5.  unworthy of; beneath
6.  at or to a lower position or place
7.  at a later place (in something written): see below
8.  archaic beneath heaven; on earth or in hell
[C14: bilooghe, from biby + looghelow1]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

early 14c., biloogh, from be- "by" + logh, lou, lowe "low." Apparently a variant of earlier a-lowe (influenced by other advs. in be-, cf. before), the parallel form to an-high (now on high). Beneath was the usual word; below was very rare in M.E. and only gained currency
in 16c. It is frequent in Shakespeare. Below is the opposite of above and concerns difference of level and suggests comparison of independent things. Under is the opposite of over and is concerned with superposition and subjection and suggests some interrelation.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Each arises from the lower border of a rib, and is inserted into the upper border of the rib below.
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