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town and Atlantic oil port situated in Rivers state, southern Nigeria. It lies along the Bonny River (an eastern distributary of the Niger River) 6 miles (10 km) upstream from the Bight of Biafra. A traditional trading centre (fish, salt, palm oil, and palm kernels) of the Ijo people, it was the capital of the 15th- to 19th-century kingdom of Bonny. Reaching its height in the reign of the Pepple dynasty in the 18th and early 19th centuries, its economy (and the kingdom's) was based on the sale of slaves to European traders. It was one of the largest slave-exporting depots of West Africa-in 1790 about 20,000 people (most of them Igbo and other hinterland groups) were shipped to the Americas. The Pepple kings were unhappy with the British decision in the 1830s to enforce the end of the slave trade; but British arms and political intrigue proved decisive, and by the 1850s Bonny had become a major exporter of palm oil and palm kernels. It remained an important port (shipping ivory, timber, and beeswax, as well as palm produce) until 1916, when it was eclipsed by Port Harcourt, the new railroad terminus 35 miles (56 km) upstream.