calculus

[kal-kyuh-luhs]
noun, plural calculi [kal-kyuh-lahy] , calculuses.
1.
Mathematics. a method of calculation, especially one of several highly systematic methods of treating problems by a special system of algebraic notations, as differential or integral calculus.
2.
Pathology. a stone, or concretion, formed in the gallbladder, kidneys, or other parts of the body.
3.
Also called tartar. Dentistry. a hard, yellowish to brownish-black deposit on teeth formed largely through the mineralization of dead bacteria in dental plaques by the calcium salts in salivary secretions and subgingival transudates.
4.
calculation; estimation or computation: the calculus of political appeal.

Origin:
1610–20; < Latin: pebble, small stone (used in reckoning), equivalent to calc- (stem of calx stone) + -ulus -ule

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World English Dictionary
calculus (ˈkælkjʊləs)
 
n , pl -luses, -li
1.  a branch of mathematics, developed independently by Newton and Leibniz. Both differential calculus and integral calculus are concerned with the effect on a function of an infinitesimal change in the independent variable as it tends to zero
2.  any mathematical system of calculation involving the use of symbols
3.  logic Compare formal language an uninterpreted formal system
4.  pathol a stonelike concretion of minerals and salts found in ducts or hollow organs of the body
 
[C17: from Latin: pebble, stone used in reckoning, from calx small stone, counter]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

calculus
1660s, from L. calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used as a reckoning counter," dim. of calx (gen. calcis) "limestone" (see chalk). Modern mathematical sense is a shortening of differential calculus. Also used from 1732 to mean "concretion occurring accidentally
in the animal body," such as dental plaque, kidney stones, etc.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

calculus cal·cu·lus (kāl'kyə-ləs)
n. pl. cal·cu·lus·es or cal·cu·li (-lī')

  1. An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder. Also called stone.

  2. Dental tartar.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
calculus  [%PREMIUM_LINK%]     (kāl'kyə-ləs)  Pronunciation Key 
Plural calculi (kāl'kyə-lī') or calculuses
  1. The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the differentiation and integration of functions of one or more variables. See more at calculus of variations, differential calculus, integral calculus.

  2. A solid mass, usually composed of inorganic material, formed in a cavity or tissue of the body. Calculi are most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder. Also called stone.


The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

calculus definition


The branch of mathematics, usually studied after algebra, that provides a natural method for describing gradual change.

Note: Most modern sciences use calculus.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Generally people do not retain algebra for more than two years unless they have
  had calculus.
More important, the political calculus could easily misfire.
So don't go looking for freak accidents of nature to derail that calculus.
Imagine replacing the sequence of algebra, geometry and calculus with a
  sequence of finance, data and basic engineering.
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