saturation with carbon dioxide, as in making soda water.
reaction with carbon dioxide to remove lime, as in sugar refining.

1650–60; carbonate + -ion Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
carbonation (ˌkɑːbəˈneɪʃən)
1.  absorption of or reaction with carbon dioxide
2.  See carbonize another word for carbonization

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1881, from carbonic acid, an old name for carbon dioxide.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Home carbonation machine, to turn tap water into sparkling water or soda.
Once fermentation is complete, we'll add a little corn sugar to aid carbonation
  before bottling.
Add the corn sugar, which will start the carbonation.
The funky, fruity aroma relents to a tangy sourness, while the serious
  carbonation provides a pleasing tingle.
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