chauvinism

chauvinism

[shoh-vuh-niz-uhm]
noun
1.
zealous and aggressive patriotism or blind enthusiasm for military glory.
2.
biased devotion to any group, attitude, or cause: religious chauvinism.
3.
the denigration, disparagement, and patronization of either sex based on the belief that one sex is inferior to the other and thus deserving of less than equal treatment or benefit. Compare male chauvinism.

Origin:
1865–70; < French chauvinisme, equivalent to chauvin jingo (named after N. Chauvin, a soldier in Napoleon's army noted for loud-mouthed patriotism) + -isme -ism

chauvinist, noun
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World English Dictionary
chauvinism (ˈʃəʊvɪˌnɪzəm)
 
n
1.  aggressive or fanatical patriotism; jingoism
2.  enthusiastic devotion to a cause
3.  smug irrational belief in the superiority of one's own race, party, sex, etc: male chauvinism
 
[C19: from French chauvinisme, after Nicolas Chauvin, legendary French soldier under Napoleon, noted for his vociferous and unthinking patriotism]
 
'chauvinist
 
n
 
chauvin'istic
 
adj
 
chauvin'istically
 
adv

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

chauvinism
1870, "exaggerated, blind patriotism," from Fr. chauvinisme (1843), from Nicholas Chauvin, soldier, possibly legendary, of Napoleon's Grand Armee, notoriously attached to the Empire long after it was history. Popularized in Fr. 1831 through Cogniard's vaudeville "La Cocarde Tricolore." Meaning extended
to "sexism" via male chauvinism (1970). The name is a Fr. form of L. Calvinus and thus Calvinism and chauvinism are, etymologically, twins.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

chauvinism definition


Exaggerated belief in the supremacy of one's nation, class, caste, or group. Chauvinism usually involves xenophobia.

Note: The word chauvinism is often used as shorthand for “male chauvinism,” a term describing the attitudes of men who believe that women are inferior and should not be given equal status with men. (See also feminism.)
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

chauvinism

excessive and unreasonable patriotism, similar to jingoism. The word is derived from the name of Nicolas Chauvin, a French soldier who, satisfied with the reward of military honours and a small pension, retained a simpleminded devotion to Napoleon. Chauvin came to typify the cult of the glorification of all things military that was popular after 1815 among the veterans of Napoleon's armies. Later, chauvinism came to mean any kind of ultranationalism and was used generally to connote an undue partiality or attachment to a group or place to which one belongs. The term chauvinism also may describe an attitude of superiority toward members of the opposite sex, as in male chauvinism. Some animal-rights advocates have used the term to indicate a similar attitude on the part of human beings toward other species, as in "species chauvinism."

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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