the act or process of knowing; perception.
the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived, etc.

1375–1425; late Middle English cognicioun < Latin cognitiōn- (stem of cognitiō), equivalent to cognit(us), past participle of cognōscere (co- co- + gni-, variant stem of gnōscere, nōscere, to learn (see know1) + -tus past participle suffix) + -iōn- -ion

cognitional, adjective
noncognition, noun
self-cognition, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
cognition (kɒɡˈnɪʃən)
1.  the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired, including perception, intuition, and reasoning
2.  the knowledge that results from such an act or process
[C15: from Latin cognitiō, from cognōscere from co- (intensive) + nōscere to learn; see know]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1447, from L. cognitionem "a getting to know, acquaintance, knowledge," noun of action from cognit-, pp. stem of cognoscere (see cognizance).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

cognition cog·ni·tion (kŏg-nĭsh'ən)
The mental faculty of knowing, which includes perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, reasoning, and imagining.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
cognition   (kŏg-nĭsh'ən)  Pronunciation Key 
The mental process of knowing, including awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Some scientists attribute this leap to evolutionary advances in cognition and
  memory alone.
Consider the question of how you might augment cognition and mood by
  stimulating selected neural circuits.
We really don't need even a single machine approaching human level cognition
  for that one.
Saving time would appear to be the essence of rapid cognition.
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