noun Logic.
a conditional statement the first clause of which expresses something contrary to fact, as “If I had known.”

1945–50; counter- + factual

counterfact, noun
counterfactually, adverb Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
counterfactual (ˌkauntəˈfæktʃʊəl)
1.  expressing what has not happened but could, would, or might under differing conditions
2.  a conditional statement in which the first clause is a past tense subjunctive statement expressing something contrary to fact, as in: if she had hurried she would have caught the bus

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1946, from counter- + factual.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
He studies self-control, decision-making, and counterfactual reasoning.
With so many variables at play, it is a difficult counterfactual to entertain.
But historians are trained not to engage in counterfactual thinking.
The notion that everyone has a single coherent overarching viewpoint on the
  world strikes me as counterfactual and unreasonable.
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