noun, plural faculties.
an ability, natural or acquired, for a particular kind of action: a faculty for making friends easily.
one of the powers of the mind, as memory, reason, or speech: Though very sick, he is in full possession of all his faculties.
an inherent capability of the body: the faculties of sight and hearing.
exceptional ability or aptitude: a president with a faculty for management.
the entire teaching and administrative force of a university, college, or school.
one of the departments of learning, as theology, medicine, or law, in a university.
the teaching body, sometimes with the students, in any of these departments.
the members of a learned profession: the medical faculty.
a power or privilege conferred by the state, a superior, etc.: The police were given the faculty to search the building.
Ecclesiastical. a dispensation, license, or authorization.

1350–1400; Middle English faculte < Anglo-French, Middle French < Latin facultāt- (stem of facultās) ability, power, equivalent to facil(is) easy (see facile) + -tāt- -ty2; cf. facility

interfaculty, noun, plural interfaculties, adjective
profaculty, adjective
underfaculty, noun, plural underfaculties.

1. capacity, aptitude, knack, potential, skill. See ability.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
faculty (ˈfækəltɪ)
n , pl -ties
1.  one of the inherent powers of the mind or body, such as reason, memory, sight, or hearing
2.  any ability or power, whether acquired or inherent
3.  a conferred power or right
4.  a.  a department within a university or college devoted to a particular branch of knowledge
 b.  the staff of such a department
 c.  chiefly (US), (Canadian) all the teaching staff at a university, college, school, etc
5.  all members of a learned profession
6.  archaic occupation
[C14 (in the sense: department of learning): from Latin facultās capability; related to Latin facilis easy]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

late 14c., "ability, means, resources," from O.Fr. faculté, from L. facultatem (nom. facultas) "power, ability, wealth," from *facli-tat-s, from facilis (see facile). Academic sense was probably the earliest in English (attested in Anglo-L. from late 12c.), on notion
of "ability in knowledge." Originally each department was a faculty; the use in reference to the whole teaching staff of a college dates from 1767.

early 16c., powers or properties of ones self; also physical functions, plural of faculty.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

faculty fac·ul·ty (fāk'əl-tē)
A natural or specialized power of a living organism.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
Phrenologists also reckoned that the mind is not unitary but composed of
  independent faculties.
In turn, cognitive science research can use the robot as a test bed to study
  human perception, communication and other faculties.
There is no impairment in motor or sensory function, judgment, intellectual
  faculties or consciousness.
Yet they were also supposed to remain in control of their faculties, bantering
  and displaying wit.
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