|to show a satisfactory reason or excuse for something done.|
|to go around or bypass:|
|generalization or generalisation (ˌdʒɛnrəlaɪˈzeɪʃən)|
|1.||a principle, theory, etc, with general application|
|2.||the act or an instance of generalizing|
|3.||psychol See also conditioning the evoking of a response learned to one stimulus by a different but similar stimulus|
|4.||logic the derivation of a general statement from a particular one, formally by prefixing a quantifier and replacing a subject term by a bound variable. If the quantifier is universal (universal generalization) the argument is not in general valid; if it is existential (existential generalization) it is valid|
|5.||logic any statement ascribing a property to every member of a class (universal generalization) or to one or more members (existential generalization)|
|generalisation or generalisation|
generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion (jěn'ər-ə-lĭ-zā'shən)
The act or an instance of generalizing.
A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application.
in psychology, the tendency to respond in the same way to different but similar stimuli. For example, a dog conditioned to salivate to a tone of a particular pitch and loudness will also salivate with considerable regularity in response to tones of higher and lower pitch. The generalized response is predictable and orderly: it will measure less than that elicited by the original tone and will diminish as the new tone departs increasingly from the original. Similar behaviour is observed in humans, as children learning to talk may call anything that can be sat upon "chair" or any man "daddy." Adults conditioned by mild electric shock to fear a certain word will respond with symptoms of anxiety to any synonym of that word; in this instance, physical similarity, the usual basis of generalization, is less important than prior learning. Responses may also be generalized, allowing an individual to take an alternative course of action if the usual response is for some reason precluded. Learning may be considered a balance of generalization and discrimination (the ability to respond to differences among stimuli). An imbalance can lead to negative results. For example, a child who is scared by a man with a beard may fail to discriminate between bearded men and generalize that all men with beards are to be feared.
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