a person who is confined in a prison, hospital, etc.
Archaic. a person who dwells with others in the same house.

1580–90; in-1 + mate1 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
inmate (ˈɪnˌmeɪt)
1.  See also resident a person who is confined to an institution such as a prison or hospital
2.  obsolete a person who lives with others in a house

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1589, "one allowed to live in a house rented by another" (usually for a consideration), from in "inside" + mate "companion." Sense of "one confined to an institution" is first attested 1834.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Eventually exhaustion will kick in and you lose the inmate.
Practically, you have to write to an inmate and you have to have an invitation
  from him or her in writing.
The only white inmate in the penal system, he claims, he has been on trial for
  almost two years.
In prison he organised the killing of another inmate.
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