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town, northwestern Algeria, situated about 40 miles (60 km) south of the Mediterranean coast. Spread across two hills separated by the Wadi Toudman, it lies on the southern slope of the Beni Chougran Range of the Atlas Mountains. Mascara ("Mother of Soldiers") was founded as a Turkish military garrison in 1701. In about 1790 the town was abandoned by the Spanish Muslims who had settled there and was returned to the Turks, who settled a Jewish community there. In 1832 Abdelkader, an Algerian patriot who was born in the vicinity, chose Mascara as his headquarters. The town was reduced to ruins by the French in 1835, but total control was contested until 1841. Now an administrative, commercial, and market centre, Mascara has expanded beyond the ruins of its ancient ramparts. The main French-built town is to the northeast, and the Muslim town is to the northwest, overlooking the well-cultivated Ghriss Plain. There is much trade in leather goods, grains, and olive oil, but the region's main industry is the production of wine of high repute. Pop. (1998 prelim.) 80,797.