noun Metallurgy.
the structure of a metal or alloy as observed, after etching and polishing, under a high degree of magnification.

1880–85; micro- + structure

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World English Dictionary
microstructure (ˈmaɪkrəʊˌstrʌktʃə)
structure on a microscopic scale, esp the structure of an alloy as observed by etching, polishing, and observation under a microscope

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Example sentences
Scientists can estimate the ages of these dinosaurs by examining their bone
  microstructure for growth rings.
It is often the case that microstructure influences macrostructure.
Resting on a mountain, snow seems inert, but its microstructure mutates
Thin sections will allow us to look at the porosity and microstructure of the
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