[par-uh-le-liz-uhm, -luh-liz-]
the position or relation of parallels.
agreement in direction, tendency, or character; the state or condition of being parallel.
a parallel or comparison.
Metaphysics. the doctrine that mental and bodily processes are concomitant, each varying with variation of the other, but that there is no causal relation of interaction between the two.

1600–10; parallel + -ism

nonparallelism, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
parallelism (ˈpærəlɛˌlɪzəm)
1.  the state of being parallel
2.  grammar the repetition of a syntactic construction in successive sentences for rhetorical effect
3.  philosophy interactionism Compare occasionalism the dualistic doctrine that mental and physical processes are regularly correlated but are not causally connected, so that, for example, pain always accompanies, but is not caused by, a pin-prick
n, —adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

c.1600, from Gk. parallelismos, from parallelizein (see parallel).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Computing Dictionary

parallelism definition

1. parallel processing.
2. The maximum number of independent subtasks in a given task at a given point in its execution. E.g. in computing the expression
(a + b) *
(c + d) the expressions a, b, c and d can all be calculated in parallel giving a degree of parallelism of (at least) four. Once they have been evaluated then the expressions a + b and c + d can be calculated as two independent parallel processes.
The Bernstein condition states that processes P and Q can be executed in parallel (or in either sequential order) only if:
(i) there is no overlap between the inputs of P and the outputs of Q and vice versa and
(ii) there is no overlap between the outputs of P, the outputs of Q and the inputs of any other task.
If process P outputs value v which process Q reads then P must be executed before Q. If both processes write to some variable then its final value will depend on their execution order so they cannot be executed in parallel if any other process depends on that variable's value.

The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010
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Example sentences
While that parallelism may hammer in the author's message, it doesn't make for
  much spontaneity on stage.
Beam covers everything from parts of speech to parallelism.
The first is the growth of parallelism—the practice of getting a chip to
  execute many different operations simultaneously.
In this way the curious parallelism to animal motions, which was so striking
  and disturbing to the human beholder, was attained.
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