|—n , pl -phies|
|1.||the academic discipline concerned with making explicit the nature and significance of ordinary and scientific beliefs and investigating the intelligibility of concepts by means of rational argument concerning their presuppositions, implications, and interrelationships; in particular, the rational investigation of the nature and structure of reality (metaphysics), the resources and limits of knowledge (epistemology), the principles and import of moral judgment (ethics), and the relationship between language and reality (semantics)|
|2.||the particular doctrines relating to these issues of some specific individual or school: the philosophy of Descartes|
|3.||the critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a discipline: the philosophy of law|
|4.||archaic, literary or the investigation of natural phenomena, esp alchemy, astrology, and astronomy|
|5.||any system of belief, values, or tenets|
|6.||a personal outlook or viewpoint|
|7.||serenity of temper|
|[C13: from Old French filosofie, from Latin philosophia, from Greek, from philosophos lover of wisdom]|
Nec quicquam aliud est philosophia, si interpretari velis, praeter studium sapientiae; sapientia autem est rerum divinarum et humanarum causarumque quibus eae res continentur scientia. [Cicero, "De Officiis"]Meaning "system a person forms for conduct of life" is attested from 1771. Philosophize is attested from 1594.
A study that attempts to discover the fundamental principles of the sciences, the arts, and the world that the sciences and arts deal with; the word philosophy is from the Greek for “love of wisdom.” Philosophy has many branches that explore principles of specific areas, such as knowledge (epistemology), reasoning (logic), being in general (metaphysics), beauty (aesthetics), and human conduct (ethics).