protein

[proh-teen, -tee-in]
noun
1.
Biochemistry. any of numerous, highly varied organic molecules constituting a large portion of the mass of every life form and necessary in the diet of all animals and other nonphotosynthesizing organisms, composed of 20 or more amino acids linked in a genetically controlled linear sequence into one or more long polypeptide chains, the final shape and other properties of each protein being determined by the side chains of the amino acids and their chemical attachments: proteins include such specialized forms as collagen for supportive tissue, hemoglobin for transport, antibodies for immune defense, and enzymes for metabolism.
2.
the plant or animal tissue rich in such molecules, considered as a food source supplying essential amino acids to the body.
3.
(formerly) a substance thought to be the essential nitrogenous component of all organic bodies.
adjective
4.
Biochemistry. of the nature of or containing protein.
Also, proteid [proh-teed, -tee-id] .


Origin:
1835–45; < German Protein < Greek prōte(îos) primary + German -in -in2; replacing proteine < French

proteinaceous [proh-tee-ney-shuhs, -tee-i-ney-] , proteinic, proteinous, adjective
nonprotein, noun

protean, protein.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
protein (ˈprəʊtiːn)
 
n
any of a large group of nitrogenous compounds of high molecular weight that are essential constituents of all living organisms. They consist of one or more chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds and are folded into a specific three-dimensional shape maintained by further chemical bonding
 
[C19: via German from Greek prōteios primary, from protos first + -in]
 
protein'aceous
 
adj
 
pro'teinic
 
adj
 
pro'teinous
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

protein
1844, from Fr. protéine, coined 1838 by Du. chemist Gerhard Johan Mulder (1802-1880), perhaps on suggestion of Berzelius, from Gk. proteios "the first quality," from protos "first." Originally a theoretical substance thought to be essential to life, the modern use is from Ger. Protein, borrowed
in Eng. 1907.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

protein pro·tein (prō'tēn', -tē-ĭn)
n.
Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of chains of alpha-amino acids. Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells and include many substances, such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, that are necessary to the functioning of an organism. They are essential in the diet of animals for the growth and repair of tissue and can be obtained from foods such as meat, fish, eggs, milk, and legumes.


pro'tein·a'ceous (prōt'n-ā'shəs, prō'tē-nā'-) adj.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
protein   (prō'tēn')  Pronunciation Key 
Any of a large class of complex organic chemical compounds that are essential for life. Proteins play a central role in biological processes and form the basis of living tissues. They consist of long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds and have distinct and varied three-dimensional structures, usually containing alpha helices and beta sheets as well as looping and folded chains. Enzymes, antibodies, and hemoglobin are examples of proteins.

Our Living Language  : Proteins are the true workhorses of the body, carrying out most of the chemical processes and making up the majority of cellular structures. Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids, but they don't resemble linear pieces of spaghetti. The atoms in these long chains have their own attractive and repulsive properties. Some of the amino acids can form bonds with other molecules in the chain, kinking and twisting and folding into complicated, three-dimensional shapes, such as helixes or densely furrowed globular structures. These folded shapes are immensely important because they define the protein's function in the cell. Some protein shapes fit perfectly in cell receptors, turning chemical processes on and off, like a key in a lock, whereas others work to transport molecules throughout the body (hemoglobin's shape is ideal for carrying oxygen). When proteins fail to take on their preordained shapes, there can be serious consequences: misfolded proteins have been implicated in diseases such as alzheimer's, mad cow, and Parkinson's, among others. Exactly how proteins are able to fold into their required shapes is poorly understood and remains a fundamental question in biochemistry. See more at prion.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
proteins [(proh-teenz, proh-tee-inz)]

Complex organic molecules made up of amino acids. Proteins are basic components of all living cells and are therefore among the principal substances that make up the body. In addition to being necessary for the growth and repair of the body's tissues, proteins provide energy and act as enzymes that control chemical reactions in the cell.

Note: Foods that contain a high percentage of protein include meat, fish, poultry, milk products, beans, and nuts.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
The proteins in the serum move on the paper to form bands that show the
  proportion of each protein fraction.
Many images are of gels, which are ways to detect proteins or other molecules
  in a sample, and often they are blurry.
But a gene is worth thousands of proteins that paint a rich picture of human
  biology.
Fluorescent proteins have also been used in the name of art to make sculptures
  out of glowing beakers and live glowing rabbits.
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