noun Pathology.
pain and tenderness at some points of the sciatic nerve, usually caused by a prolapsed intervertebral disk; sciatic neuralgia.
any painful disorder extending from the hip down the back of the thigh and surrounding area.

1400–50; < Medieval Latin, noun use of feminine of sciaticus sciatic Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
sciatica (saɪˈætɪkə)
a form of neuralgia characterized by intense pain and tenderness along the course of the body's longest nerve (sciatic nerve), extending from the back of the thigh down to the calf of the leg
[C15: from Late Latin sciatica; see sciatic]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

late 14c., from M.L. sciatica, in sciatica passio "sciatic disease," from fem. of sciaticus "sciatic," from L. ischiadicus "of pain in the hip," from Gk. iskhiadikos, from iskhias (gen. iskhiados) "pain in the hips," from iskhion "hip joint." Sciatic (adj.) is attested from 1540s.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

sciatica sci·at·i·ca (sī-āt'ĭ-kə)
Pain along the sciatic nerve that radiates from the lower back to the buttocks and back of the thigh and is usually caused by a herniated disk of the lumbar region of the spine.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
sciatica [(seye-at-i-kuh)]

Chronic pain in the hip and upper leg caused by irritation of a large nerve — the sciatic nerve — that runs through the pelvis and down the back of the thigh.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
At the link are a number of poses which relieve sciatica, but some are
  contraindicated with certain back injuries.
People with degenerative disc disease, herniations and sciatica.
And had swollen ankles, trouble breathing and sciatica.
Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and
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