sugar

[shoog-er]
noun
1.
a sweet, crystalline substance, C 1 2 H 2 2 O 1 1 , obtained chiefly from the juice of the sugarcane and the sugar beet, and present in sorghum, maple sap, etc.: used extensively as an ingredient and flavoring of certain foods and as a fermenting agent in the manufacture of certain alcoholic beverages; sucrose. Compare beet sugar, cane sugar.
2.
Chemistry. a member of the same class of carbohydrates, as lactose, glucose, or fructose.
3.
(sometimes initial capital letter) an affectionate or familiar term of address, as to a child or a romantic partner (sometimes offensive when used to strangers, casual acquaintances, subordinates, etc., especially by a male to a female).
4.
a word formerly used in communications to represent the letter S.
5.
Slang. money.
6.
Slang. LSD.
verb (used with object)
7.
to cover, sprinkle, mix, or sweeten with sugar.
8.
to make agreeable.
verb (used without object)
9.
to form sugar or sugar crystals.
10.
to make maple sugar.
Verb phrases
11.
sugar off, (in making maple sugar) to complete the boiling down of the syrup in preparation for granulation.

Origin:
1250–1300; Middle English sugre, sucre (noun) < Middle French sucre < Medieval Latin succārum < Italian zucchero < Arabic sukkar; obscurely akin to Persian shakar, Greek sákcharon (see sacchar-)

sugarless, adjective
sugarlike, adjective
nonsugar, noun
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Collins
World English Dictionary
sugar (ˈʃʊɡə)
 
n
1.  sucrose, Also called: saccharose a white crystalline sweet carbohydrate, a disaccharide, found in many plants and extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet: it is used esp as a sweetening agent in food and drinks. Formula: C12H22O11Related: saccharine
2.  any of a class of simple water-soluble carbohydrates, such as sucrose, lactose, and fructose
3.  informal chiefly (US), (Canadian) a term of affection, esp for one's sweetheart
4.  rare a slang word for money
5.  a slang name for LSD
 
vb
6.  (tr) to add sugar to; make sweet
7.  (tr) to cover or sprinkle with sugar
8.  (intr) to produce sugar
9.  sugar the pill, sugar the medicine to make something unpleasant more agreeable by adding something pleasant: the government stopped wage increases but sugared the pill by reducing taxes
 
Related: saccharine
 
[C13 suker, from Old French çucre, from Medieval Latin zuccārum, from Italian zucchero, from Arabic sukkar, from Persian shakar, from Sanskrit śarkarā]
 
'sugarless
 
adj
 
'sugar-like
 
adj

Sugar (ˈʃʊɡə)
 
n
Sir Alan (Michael). born 1947, British electronics entrepreneur; chairman of Amstrad from 1968

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

sugar
c.1289, from O.Fr. sucre "sugar" (12c.), from M.L. succarum, from Arabic sukkar, from Pers. shakar, from Skt. sharkara "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel" (cognate with Gk. kroke "pebble"). The Arabic word also was borrowed in It. (zucchero), Sp. (azucar), and O.H.G. (zucura, Ger. Zucker),
and its forms are represented in most European languages (cf. Serb. cukar, Pol. cukier, Rus. sakhar). Its Old World home was India (Alexander the Great's companions marveled at the "honey without bees") and it remained exotic in Europe until the Arabs began to cultivate it in Sicily and Spain; not until after the Crusades did it begin to rival honey as the West's sweetener. The Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane in 1506; first grown in Cuba 1523; first cultivated in Brazil 1532. The -g- in the Eng. form cannot be accounted for. The pronunciation shift from s- to sh- is probably from the initial long vowel sound syu- (as in sure). Slang "euphemistic substitute for an imprecation" [OED] is attested from 1891. As a term of endearment, first recorded 1930. Sugar maple is from 1753; sugar-plum is from 1608; sugar-daddy "elderly man who lavishes gifts on a young woman" first recorded 1926. Sugar coat (v.) "make more palatable" is from 1870. Sugar plum "small round candy" is from 1668. Sugar loaf was originally a moulded conical mass of refined sugar (1422); they're now obsolete, but sense extended 17c. to hills, hats, etc. of that shape.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

sugar sug·ar (shug'ər)
n.

  1. A crystalline or powdered substance consisting of sucrose obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beets and used in many medicines to improve their taste.

  2. Any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
sugar   (shg'ər)  Pronunciation Key 
Any of a class of crystalline carbohydrates that are water-soluble, have a characteristic sweet taste, and are universally present in animals and plants. They are characterized by the many OH groups they contain. Sugars are monosaccharides or small oligosaccharides, and include sucrose, glucose, and lactose.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

sugars definition


Carbohydrates that can supply energy to living things. Common table sugar is sucrose. Some other sugars are fructose, which is found in fruits; lactose, which is found in milk; and glucose, which is the most common sugar in the bodies of animals and plants.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences for sugars
The normal range of newborn blood sugars continues to be debated.
Carbohydrates are hydrolysed into simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose.
They are generally composed of simple sugars, and are often slightly alkaline.
Lactose is a composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose.
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