with

[with, with]
preposition
1.
accompanied by; accompanying: I will go with you. He fought with his brother against the enemy.
2.
in some particular relation to (especially implying interaction, company, association, conjunction, or connection): I dealt with the problem. She agreed with me.
3.
characterized by or having: a person with initiative.
4.
(of means or instrument) by the use of; using: to line a coat with silk; to cut with a knife.
5.
(of manner) using or showing: to work with diligence.
6.
in correspondence, comparison, or proportion to: Their power increased with their number. How does their plan compare with ours?
7.
in regard to: to be pleased with a gift.
8.
(of cause) owing to: to die with pneumonia; to pale with fear.
9.
in the region, sphere, or view of: It is day with us while it is night with the Chinese.
10.
(of separation) from: to part with a thing.
11.
against, as in opposition or competition: He fought with his brother over the inheritance.
12.
in the keeping or service of: to leave something with a friend.
13.
in affecting the judgment, estimation, or consideration of: Her argument carried a lot of weight with the trustees.
14.
at the same time as or immediately after; upon: And with that last remark, she turned and left.
15.
of the same opinion or conviction as: Are you with me or against me?
16.
in proximity to or in the same household as: He lives with his parents.
17.
(used as a function word to specify an additional circumstance or condition): We climbed the hill, with Jeff following behind.
Idioms
18.
in with. in ( def 34 ).
19.
with child, pregnant.
20.
with it, Slang.
a.
knowledgeable about, sympathetic to, or partaking of the most up-to-date trends, fashions, art, etc.
b.
representing or characterized by the most up-to-date trends, fashions, art, etc.
21.
with that. that ( def 19 ).

Origin:
before 900; Middle English, Old English: opposite, against (cognate with Old Norse vith), apparently short variant of Old English wither against; cognate with Old Saxon withar, Old High German widar, Old Norse vithr, Gothic withra

width, with.


4. See by1.
Dictionary.com Unabridged

with-

a combining form of with, having a separative or opposing force: withstand; withdraw.

Origin:
Middle English, Old English. See with

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
with (wɪð, wɪθ)
 
prep
1.  using; by means of: he killed her with an axe
2.  accompanying; in the company of: the lady you were with
3.  possessing; having: a man with a red moustache
4.  concerning or regarding: be patient with her
5.  in spite of: with all his talents, he was still humble
6.  used to indicate a time or distance by which something is away from something else: with three miles to go, he collapsed
7.  in a manner characterized by: writing with abandon
8.  caused or prompted by: shaking with rage
9.  often used with a verb indicating a reciprocal action or relation between the subject and the preposition's object: agreeing with me; chatting with the troops
10.  informal not with you not able to grasp or follow what you are saying
11.  informal with it
 a.  fashionable; in style
 b.  comprehending what is happening or being said
12.  with that after that; having said or done that
 
[Old English; related to Old Norse vith, Gothic withra, Latin vitricus stepfather, Sanskrit vitarám wider]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

with
O.E. wið "against, opposite, toward," a shortened form related to wiðer, from P.Gmc. *withro- "against" (cf. O.S. withar "against," O.N. viðr "against, with, toward, at," M.Du., Du. weder, Du. weer "again," Goth. wiþra "against, opposite"), from PIE *wi-tero-, lit. "more apart," from
base *wi- "separation" (cf. Skt. vi, Avestan vi- "asunder," Skt. vitaram "further, farther," O.C.S. vutoru "other, second"). In M.E., sense shifted to denote association, combination, and union, partly by influence of O.N. vidh, and also perhaps by L. cum "with" (as in pugnare cum "fight with"). In this sense, it replaced O.E. mid "with," which survives only as a prefix (e.g. midwife). Original sense of "against, in opposition" is retained in compounds such as withhold, withdraw, withstand. Often treated as a conjunction by ungrammatical writers and used where and would be correct. First record of with child "pregnant" is recorded from c.1200. With it "cool" is black slang, recorded by 1931.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Idioms & Phrases

with

In addition to the idioms beginning with with, also see alive with; all over with; all right with; all up (with); along with; at home (with); at odds (with); at one (with); bear with; born with a silver spoon; both barrels, with; bound up in (with); break with; burst with; can do with; can't do anything with; cast one's lot with; caught with one's pants down; charge with; clear with; come down with; come out with; come to grips with; come to terms with; come up with; come with the territory; cook with gas; damn with faint praise; deal with; die with one's boots on; dispense with; do away with; down with; fall in with; fence with; fight fire with fire; fit in (with); fix up with; get along with; get an in with; get away with; get involved with; get in with; get on (with it); get over (with); get together (with); get tough with; go along (with); go halves with; go hard with; gone with the wind; go out (with); go through (with); go to bed with; go with; go with the flow; green with envy; handle with gloves; have a brush with; have a way with; have a word with; have done (with); have no truck with; have pull with; have to do with; have words with; hold with; in bad with; in good with; in league with; in (with) regard to; in trouble with; in with; it's all over with; keep up with; kill with kindness; laugh and the world laughs with you; lead with one's chin; learn to live with; level with; lie with; like a chicken with its head cut off; over and done with; over with; pal around with; part with; play ball (with); play the devil with; play with fire; put up with; reckon with; roll with the punches; rub elbows with; run around (with); run away with; run off with; run with; saddle someone with; see with half an eye; settle with; shake hands with; shake with laughter; side with; sign on with; sit well with; sleep with; spar with; square with; stand up with; stay with; stick with; stuck with; swim with the tide; take issue with; taken with; take the bitter with the sweet; take the rough with the smooth; take up with; tamper with; tarred with the same brush; tax with; team up with; tinker with; together with; to hell with; top off (with); to start with; toy with; trouble one's head with; vote with one's feet; walk off with; what's with; what with; you can't take it with you.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms by Christine Ammer.
Copyright © 1997. Published by Houghton Mifflin.
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Example sentences
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