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-en1

1.
a suffix formerly used to form transitive and intransitive verbs from adjectives (fasten; harden; sweeten), or from nouns (heighten; lengthen; strengthen).
Origin
Middle English, Old English -n- (as in Middle English fast-n-en, Old English fǣst-n-ian to make fast, fasten); cognate with -n- of like verbs in other Gmc languages (Old Norse fastna)

-en2

1.
a suffix used to form adjectives of source or material from nouns:
ashen; golden; oaken.
Origin
Middle English, Old English; cognate with Old High German -īn, Gothic -eins, Latin -īnus; see -ine1

-en3

1.
a suffix used to mark the past participle in many strong and some weak verbs:
taken; proven.
Origin
Middle English, Old English; cognate with German -en, Old Norse -inn

-en4

1.
a suffix used in forming the plural of some nouns:
brethren; children; oxen.
Origin
Middle English; Old English -an, case ending of n-stem nouns, as in naman oblique singular, and nominative and accusative plural of nama name; akin to n-stem forms in other IE languages, as in Latin nōmen, nōmin- name

-en5

1.
a diminutive suffix:
kitten; maiden.
Origin
Middle English, Old English, from neuter of -en2
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for -en

-en1

suffix
1.
cause to be; become; cause to have: blacken, heighten
Word Origin
Old English -n-, as in fæst-n-ian to fasten, of common Germanic origin; compare Icelandic fastna

-en2

suffix
1.
of; made of; resembling: ashen, earthen, wooden
Word Origin
Old English -en; related to Gothic -eins, Latin -īnus-ine1
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for -en

word-forming element making verbs (e.g. darken, weaken) from adjectives or from nouns, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inojan (cf. Old Norse -na), from PIE adjectival suffix *-no-. Most active in Middle English.

suffix added to nouns to produce adjectives meaning "made of, of the nature of" (e.g. golden, oaken), corresponding to Latin -ine. Common in Old and Middle English, surviving words with it now are largely discarded in everyday use and the simple form of the noun serves as an adjective as well.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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