follow Dictionary.com

Why is the ninth month called September?

churl

[churl] /tʃɜrl/
noun
1.
a rude, boorish, or surly person.
2.
a peasant; rustic.
3.
a niggard; miser:
He was a churl in his affections.
4.
English History. a freeman of the lowest rank.
Origin
900
before 900; Middle English cherl, Old English ceorl man, freeman; cognate with Dutch kerel, German Kerl; akin to carl
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
Cite This Source
Examples for churl
  • None but the pickiest churl could find a significant omission in this compilation.
  • He is a churl with a soft place in his heart, whose speech is a brash of bitter waters, but who loves to help you at a pinch.
  • House is equal parts brilliant diagnostician and-oh, dear-sulfurous churl, wounded in body and in spirit.
British Dictionary definitions for churl

churl

/tʃɜːl/
noun
1.
a surly ill-bred person
2.
(archaic) a farm labourer
3.
a variant spelling of ceorl
Word Origin
Old English ceorl; related to Old Norse karl, Middle Low German kerle,Greek gerōn old man
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
Cite This Source
Word Origin and History for churl
n.

Old English ceorl "peasant, freeman, man without rank," from Proto-Germanic *kerlaz, *karlaz (cf. Old Frisian zerl "man, fellow," Middle Low German kerle, Dutch kerel "freeman of low degree," German Kerl "man, husband," Old Norse karl "old man, man").

It had various meaning in early Middle English, including "man of the common people," "a country man," "husbandman," "free peasant;" by 1300, it meant "bondman, villain," also "fellow of low birth or rude manners." For words for "common man" that acquire an insulting flavor over time, compare boor, villain. In this case, however, the same word also has come to mean "king" in many languages (e.g. Lithuanian karalius, Czech kral, Polish krol) via Charlemagne.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
Cite This Source
churl in the Bible

in Isa. 32:5 (R.V. marg., "crafty"), means a deceiver. In 1 Sam. 25:3, the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and ill-natured, or, as the word literally means, "hard." The same Greek word as used by the LXX. here is found in Matt. 25:24, and there is rendered "hard."

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
Cite This Source
Encyclopedia Article for churl

ceorl

the free peasant who formed the basis of society in Anglo-Saxon England. His free status was marked by his right to bear arms, his attendance at local courts, and his payment of dues directly to the king. His wergild, the sum that his family could accept in place of vengeance if he were killed, was valued at 200 shillings. Nineteenth-century scholars often represented the ceorl as the typical peasant labourer in a kind of Anglo-Saxon democracy. Actually, he was a member of a peasant elite that was gradually extinguished between the 7th and 12th centuries. A few ceorls prospered and attained the rank of thane (a free retainer, or lord, corresponding, after the Norman Conquest, to the position of baron or knight), but most were driven, first by economic pressure and later by the Norman Conquest, into the class of unfree villeins. The word ceorl came to denote a depressed and subject peasant and, by the 14th century, was used as a pejorative.

Learn more about ceorl with a free trial on Britannica.com
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
Cite This Source

Word of the Day

Difficulty index for churl

Some English speakers likely know this word

Word Value for churl

10
12
Scrabble Words With Friends

Quotes with churl