in-

1
a prefix representing English in (income; indwelling; inland , etc.), but used also as a verb-formative with transitive, intensive, or sometimes little apparent force (intrust; inweave , etc.). It often assumes the same forms as in-2, such as en-, em-, im-3.

Origin:
Middle English, Old English; see in

Dictionary.com Unabridged

in-

2
a prefix of Latin origin meaning primarily “in,” but used also as a verb-formative with the same force as in-1. (incarcerate; incantation ).
Also, il-, im-, ir-.
Compare em-, en-.


Origin:
< Latin, combining form of in (preposition); cognate with in

in-

3
a prefix of Latin origin, corresponding to English un-, having a negative or privative force, freely used as an English formative, especially of adjectives and their derivatives and of nouns (inattention; indefensible; inexpensive; inorganic; invariable ). It assumes the same phonetic phases as in-2. (impartial; immeasurable; illiterate; irregular , etc.). In French, it became en- and thus occurs unfelt in such words as enemy (French ennemi, Latin inimicus, lit., not friendly).
Also, il-, im-, ir-.


Origin:
< Latin; akin to an-1, a-6, un-1


The prefixes in- and un- may both have, among other uses, a negative force. In- is the form derived from Latin, and is therefore used in learned words or in words derived from Latin or (rarely) Greek: inaccessible, inaccuracy, inadequate, etc. Un- is the native form going back to Old English, used in words of native origin, and sometimes used in combination with words of other origins if these words are in common use: unloving, ungodly, unfeeling, unnecessary, unsafe.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
in-, il-, im- or ir-1
 
prefix
Compare un- not; non-: incredible; insincere; illegal; imperfect; irregular
 
[from Latin in-; related to ne-, nōn not]
 
il-, il-, im- or ir-1
 
prefix
 
[from Latin in-; related to ne-, nōn not]
 
im-, il-, im- or ir-1
 
prefix
 
[from Latin in-; related to ne-, nōn not]
 
ir-, il-, im- or ir-1
 
prefix
 
[from Latin in-; related to ne-, nōn not]

in-, il-, im- or ir-2
 
prefix
1.  in; into; towards; within; on: infiltrate; immigrate
2.  having an intensive or causative function: inflame; imperil
 
[from in (prep, adv)]
 
il-, il-, im- or ir-2
 
prefix
 
[from in (prep, adv)]
 
im-, il-, im- or ir-2
 
prefix
 
[from in (prep, adv)]
 
ir-, il-, im- or ir-2
 
prefix
 
[from in (prep, adv)]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

in-
prefix meaning "not, opposite of, without" (also im-/il-/ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant), from L. in- "not," cognate with Gk. an-, O.E. un- (see un- (1)).

in-
prefix meaning "into, in, on, upon" (also im-; il-; ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant), from L. in- "in" (see in). In O.Fr. this often became en-, which was usually respelled in Eng. to conform with L., but not always, which accounts for pairs like enquire/inquire.
There was a native form, which in W.Saxon usually appeared as on- (cf. O.E. onliehtan "to enlighten"), and some verbs survived into M.E. (cf. inwrite "to inscribe"), but all now seem to be extinct.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

in- 1 or il- or im- or ir-
pref.
Not: invertebrate.

in- 2 or il- or im- or ir-
pref.
In; into; within: intubation.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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