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involuntary

[in-vol-uh n-ter-ee] /ɪnˈvɒl ənˌtɛr i/
adjective
1.
not voluntary; independent of one's will; not by one's own choice:
an involuntary listener; involuntary servitude.
2.
unintentional; unconscious:
an involuntary gesture.
3.
Physiology. acting independently of or done or occurring without volition:
involuntary muscles.
Origin
1525-1535
1525-35; < Late Latin involuntārius. See in-3, voluntary
Related forms
involuntarily
[in-vol-uh n-ter-uh-lee, -vol-uh n-tair-] /ɪnˈvɒl ənˌtɛr ə li, -ˌvɒl ənˈtɛər-/ (Show IPA),
adverb
involuntariness, noun
Synonyms
1, 3. See automatic. 2. instinctive. 3. reflex, uncontrolled.
Antonyms
2. intentional.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples for involuntary
  • The involuntary eye movements of nystagmus are caused by abnormal function in the areas of the brain that control eye movements.
  • First, let's consider involuntary collaboration with jerks.
  • Government offices are closed on some days, as state workers take involuntary and unpaid furloughs.
  • However, some migrations are forced and involuntary.
  • Shivering is another response to chilling: the involuntary movements burn body tissue to produce more body heat.
  • If someone touches you in certain places in a certain way, it prompts an involuntary but pleasurable physiological response.
  • It's a good conversation-starter for discussion of involuntary commitment.
  • His trainer was unconsciously signalling answers to the horse with involuntary cues.
  • Soon it was his turn to let out an involuntary curse of astonishment.
  • Stuttering is a communication disorder generally characterized by involuntary disruptions in the flow of speech.
British Dictionary definitions for involuntary

involuntary

/ɪnˈvɒləntərɪ; -trɪ/
adjective
1.
carried out without one's conscious wishes; not voluntary; unintentional
2.
(physiol) (esp of a movement or muscle) performed or acting without conscious control
Derived Forms
involuntarily, adverb
involuntariness, noun
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for involuntary
involuntary
1531, from L.L. involuntarius "involuntary," from in- "not" + L. voluntarius (see voluntary).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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involuntary in Medicine

involuntary in·vol·un·tar·y (ĭn-vŏl'ən-těr'ē)
adj.

  1. Not subject to control of the volition.

  2. Acting or done without or against one's will.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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involuntary in Science
involuntary
  (ĭn-vŏl'ən-těr'ē)   
Not under conscious control. Most of the biological processes in animals that are vital to life, such as contraction of the heart, blood flow, breathing, and digestion, are involuntary and controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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