By their action upon the lithosphere they have produced a third envelope,—the mantle of rock waste.
The lithosphere is the more or less stable crust of the earth, which may have been, to begin with, about fifty miles in thickness.
Thus were formed the oceanic basin and the continental arches of the lithosphere.
These igneous rocks were consolidated either upon the surface of the lithosphere or in its interior.
Our globe is a cooling and contracting body, and depression must always be the prevailing movement of the lithosphere.
Above the metallic core of the planet, the lithosphere consists exclusively of fluorides of the metals.
The accompanying figure shows the boundaries of lithosphere plates that are presently active.
The dark, cold abysses of the ocean are far less affected by change than any other portion of the surface of the lithosphere.
The outer part of the Earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle. It is about 55 km (34 mi) thick beneath the oceans and up to about 200 km (124 mi) thick beneath the continents. The high velocity with which seismic waves propagate through the lithosphere suggests that it is completely solid. Compare asthenosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere.