specialization

[spesh-uh-luh-zey-shuhn]
noun
1.
the act of specializing, or pursuing a particular line of study or work: Medical students with high student loans often feel driven into specialization.
2.
Biology. the adaptation of an organism or organ to a special function or environment: Basic biology suggests the selective pressures leading to convergent evolutionary specialization among desert-dwelling species.
3.
the act of being restricted to some specific, or the act of becoming specialized.
Also, especially British, specialisation.


Origin:
specializ(e) + -ation

despecialization, noun
nonspecialization, noun
subspecialization, noun
superspecialization, noun
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World English Dictionary
specialize or specialise (ˈspɛʃəˌlaɪz)
 
vb
1.  (intr) to train in or devote oneself to a particular area of study, occupation, or activity
2.  (usually passive) to cause (organisms or their parts) to develop in a way most suited to a particular environment or way of life or (of organisms, etc) to develop in this way
3.  (tr) to modify or make suitable for a special use or purpose
4.  (tr) to mention specifically; specify
5.  (tr) to endorse (a commercial paper) to a specific payee
 
specialise or specialise
 
vb
 
speciali'zation or specialise
 
n
 
speciali'sation or specialise
 
n

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

specialization spe·cial·i·za·tion (spěsh'ə-lĭ-zā'shən)
n.

  1. The act of specializing.

  2. A specialty.

  3. Adaptation, as of an organ or organism, to a specific function or environment.

  4. See differentiation.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
As the field grows, there is more opportunity for specialization.
It is entirely possible to innovate in the direction of increased
  specialization right into obsolescence and eventual destruction.
And between foragers, there's specialization of a bee collecting a mixture of
  pollen.
Still, there are shops where specialization is taken to almost unimaginable
  extremes.
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