the act of sterilizing.
the condition of being sterilized.
the destruction of all living microorganisms, as pathogenic or saprophytic bacteria, vegetative forms, and spores.

1870–75; sterile + -ization

nonsterilization, noun
resterilization, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
sterilization or sterilisation (ˌstɛrɪlaɪˈzeɪʃən)
1.  the act or procedure of sterilizing or making sterile
2.  the state of being sterile; sterilized condition
sterilisation or sterilisation

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

sterilization ster·il·i·za·tion (stěr'ə-lĭ-zā'shən)

  1. The act or procedure of sterilizing.

  2. The condition of being sterile or sterilized.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
sterilization   (stěr'ə-lĭ-zā'shən)  Pronunciation Key 
  1. The procedure of destroying all microorganisms in or on a given environment, such as a surgical instrument, in order to prevent the spread of infection. This is usually done by using heat, radiation, or chemical agents.

  2. Any of various surgical procedures intended to eliminate the capacity to reproduce in humans or animals.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

sterilization definition

The removal of all microorganisms and other pathogens from an object or surface by treating it with chemicals or subjecting it to high heat or radiation.

Sterilization also refers to procedures that result in infertility. Vasectomies and tubal ligations, in which the fallopian tubes of a woman are tied off, are examples of sterilization techniques.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
After sterilization, you add water and it is boiled and sterilized.
Certainly, the decision provided legal heft and the protection of the highest
  court against challenges to forced sterilization.
Whether sterilization ought to continue will become an interesting question.
The despots turned to forced sterilization of poor in a horrible miscarriage of
  population control.
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